In week 11, we have been taught about TPACK. What is TPACK? TPACK stands for Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. It is a theory that was developed to explain the set of knowledge that teachers need to teach their students a subject by using technology. TPACK can be used in classroom by keeping technology. If we understand the function of TPACK, we can use technology into the content and pedagogy in our teaching. This will help our students learning more effectively. First, choose the learning outcomes that we will be working on that day or during that class session. The learning outcomes will become the content. The second step is choosing an activity type. The activity type is the pedagogy or how are the students going to learn the content. Finally, we can choose technologies that will support the activity type in learning. Last but not least, in becoming a great teacher, we have to combine our knowledge of the subject with our knowledge of how to teach. By using technology, we need to also learn how to combine technology with our content and pedagogy to create an effective learning environment so that it will become fun and interesting.
In this week lecture, we learn about learning theories. Learning theories are an organized set of principles explaining how individuals acquire, retain and recall knowledge. We can understand well on how learning occurs by studying learning theories because we as a future teacher that need to face various kind of students. There are four learning theories which are, behaviorism, cognitivism, connectivism and constructivism. Behaviorism reacts on a principles of "stimulus response" and the behavior caused by operant conditioning and it shaped through the positive and negative reinforcements. The learning process is based on objectively observable changes in behaviour. Other than that, cognitivism focuses on mental process. It shows how people perceive, think, remember, learn and solve problems. Next, Connectivism is actually a newest learning theory it is where people learn and grow by forming connections. Connectivism is a learning theory that explains how Internet technologies have created new opportunities for people to learn and share information across the world and among themselves. Last but not least was constructivism. Constructive theorists found that human beings are unique in their ability to construct unique understandings of their immediate environments and the world beyond them. Every individual experiences life differently based on an immeasurable number of physiological and emotional factors.
In week 9, both lecture and tutorial class were cancelled. But Dr. Fariza had give a task for us to do in MOOC. We need to do prototype learning. Prototype is a system analyst and users generally use a prototype to evaluate a new design to enhance precision. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. Prototype still relevant to be use in teaching and learning because it consists evaluation for to evaluate their students performance. Myself as s teachers will face the task of evaluating appropriate software to aid the learning process. These is to check the good of it in teaching and learning process
A prototype is an average or known as one of the best example of category or concept. Prototypes give a concise representation for entire group of entities. Providing means to anticipate hidden properties and interact with novel stimuli based on their similarity. A prototype learning system is a system of cognitive processes together with their underlying neural structures that enables one to learn a category prototype from a set of exemplars.
A prototype can be in the following forms paper, 3D printing, digital or small model. These prototypes can fall into one of the following area functional, display or a small model. The functional prototype focus on the functions. The display prototype focuses on the looks. The small model combines both and become a smaller version of the final product. The type of prototype to develop must be decided based on the intended purpose of the prototype and the medium of use.
During week 8 lecture. We learn something that also new for me that is Cipher. This lecture was really confusing and hard for me to understand what is Cipher because it is about numbering and alphabet arrangement in order to translate and decode a secret message. Cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data. Symmetric key encryption, also known as secret key encryption, depends on how to the use of ciphers, which operate symmetrically. With symmetric algorithms, the same cipher and encryption key are applied to data in the same way, whether the objective is to convert plaintext to ciphertext or ciphertext to plaintext. A cipher transforms data by processing the original data into ciphertext, which should appear to be random data. A cipher uses a system of fixed rules -- an algorithm -- to transform plaintext, a legible message, into ciphertext, an apparently random string of characters. Ciphers can be designed to encrypt or decrypt bits in a stream (stream ciphers), or they can process ciphertext in uniform blocks of a specified number of bits (block ciphers).
Symmetric ciphers are most commonly used to protect the online communications and incorporated into many different network protocols to be used to encrypt exchanges. For example, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and TLS use ciphers to encrypt application layer data, especially when used with HTTP Secure (HTTPS). Virtual private networks (VPNs) that connect remote workers or remote branches into corporate networks use protocols with symmetric ciphers to protect data communications. Symmetric ciphers protect data privacy in most Wi-Fi networks, online banking and e-commerce services. Codes and ciphers are different ways to encrypt a message. A code is a method of changing a message by replacing each word with another word that has a different meaning. On the other hand, a cipher converts the message using the cipher's algorithm to transform the data representing the letters and words in the message. There are so many types of cipher such as, Caesar cipher, Atbash cipher and many more.